In this section you may find publications generated by the project as part of the project dissemination activities.

Fifth-Generation District Heating and Cooling Substations: Demand Response with Artificial Neural Network-Based Model Predictive Control

The paper aims at reviewing recent publications on both hard and soft-computing implementations like model predictive control and machine learning algorithms with applications on low and neutral temperature DH networks.

The full paper is available here

Cost and benefits of shifting towards low temperature district heating

This thesis explores the imminent shift away from conventional district heating systems, emphasizing the need for adaptation to lower heat demand from building refurbishments and energy efficiency programs. It evaluates the costs and benefits of innovative low and ultra-low temperature district heating systems, highlighting their potential to outperform traditional heating methods in reducing CO2 emissions and primary energy consumption. The case study underscores the feasibility challenges in certain scenarios but emphasizes the transformative impact of transitioning to locally sourced renewable energy and urban waste heat.

The full thesis (in HR language) is available here

Optimisation of urban waste heat source integration into existing district heating systems

This master's thesis explores the potential of urban waste heat sources in Europe, estimating approximately 1.2 EJ of available waste heat. The challenge lies in integrating these sources into modern district heating networks. The study employs the pinch method, supported by Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) in MS Excel, to model and integrate various urban heat sources like supermarkets, shopping malls, and power substations. The results highlight the thermodynamic and economic viability of utilizing refrigeration systems from supermarkets and power substations as the most economically feasible heat sources in different district heating networks.

The full thesis (in HR language) is available here

District heating systems modeling: A gamification approach

District heating (DH) is supposed to largely contribute to achievement of the climate goals in the near future. However, public awareness, understanding and acceptance of the technology are required. The REWARDHeat Serious Game game can help reach the public and allow players to explore interdependencies between technical, economic, ecological and sociopolitical aspects of DH.

The full article is available here

Advanced Control and Fault Detection Strategies for District Heating and Cooling Systems—A Review

The fifth-generation district heating and cooling (5GDHC) is a novel solution emerging in Europe. This article presents advanced control strategies for the operation of the customer-sited energy transfer stations by means of model predictive control (MPC).

The full article is available here

How innovative district heating networks reduce the consumption of fossil energy

EURAC Research, within the Project REWARDHeat explores how low-grade renewable and waste heat can be effectively recovered in district heating and cooling networks.In January 2021 an article have been published on Open Access Government.

The full article is available here

Integration of Renewables in DHC for Sustainable Living Workshop

Euroheat & Power, on behalf of the REWARDHeat project, published an article with several other H2020 projects following a workshop on the integration of renewables in DHC networks, which took place at the Sustainable Places 2020 conference.

The full article is available here

Role of sustainable heat sources in transition towards fourth generation district heating – A review

This article examines the technical and non-technical obstacles that come with incorporating solar thermal, waste heat, geothermal, and biomass energy sources into 4-th generation district heating systems.

The full article is available here

Technical and Economic Assessment of Supermarket and Power Substation Waste Heat Integration into Existing District Heating Systems

District heating systems are almost always located in densely populated urban areas. UNIZAG has developed an economic assessment model for the integration of urban heat sources. The method was tested on a case study of a supermarket and power substation located in Croatia's capital, Zagreb.

The full article is available here

Position Paper on Key Texts of the European Commission's Fit for 55 Package

 REWARDHeat overview of relevant aspects of the European Commission’s fit-for-55 package. The proposals that will have the biggest impact on DHC, and the wider H&C sector, are the revision of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED), the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and the revision and extension of the EU Emissions Trading System Directive (EU ETS). REWARDHeat is well placed to provide important knowledge and can give input to the ongoing policy discussion and the revision of the chosen directives.

The full text is available here

Comparing the Effects of Flexibility Options on Conventional and Low-temperature District Heating Networks: Studying the potential of the next generation of district energy systems

This master's thesis investigates the transition from third-generation district heating (3GDH) to fourth generation (4GDH) systems, emphasizing the shift to lower temperatures. Using the TIMES model, it analyzes the impact of flexibility options on district heating systems, comparing conventional temperature DH (CTDH) to low-temperature DH (LTDH). The study, based on the REWARDHeat project in Helsingborg, Sweden, incorporates thermal energy storage (TES) and evaluates scenarios with varying electricity prices. Results reveal LTDH systems, with TES technologies, exhibit more efficient heat storage, greater peak shaving, and nearly 10% lower total system costs compared to CTDH systems. The findings suggest LTDH systems, with TES flexibility, can effectively leverage lower heat losses for enhanced performance.

The full thesis is available here

The method of determining the radius of economic profitability integration of urban waste heat into centralised new generation heating systems (in HR)

Centralised heating systems are an important part of the energy system and their function is to provide heat and domestic hot water for users at the state or city level. Following new challenges which many countries are facing in reducing CO2 emissions and the increasing integration of renewables energy sources, heating systems will certainly experience changes related to heat sources or distribution systems. Integration of waste heat from city heat sources is one of possible ways of increasing the share of renewable energy sources. 

The full thesis (in HR language) is available here

LOW TEMPERATURE: Good experiences in Albertslund

Over the past 15 years, Albertslund Utility has supplied newly built and refurbished housing areas with low-temperature district heating (LTDH), aiming for 100% adoption at 60 degrees by 2026. Using homemade shunts, temperatures are lowered by mixing return water with hot forward water, supported by a Grundfos iGrid shunt from REWARDHeat. In an existing 1960s housing area, the introduction of LTDH with shunts exceeded expectations, with only one of 105 villas needing a new heating unit. The success led to shunts becoming a permanent part of Albertslund's district heating grid, offering flexibility without the need for grid upgrades. The Porsager demonstration project facilitated the direct conversion of another 1960s housing area and an old village from natural gas to LTDH

Read the full article in Danish here

District heating and cooling addresses climate and energy goals

District heating and cooling (DHC) networks rely on one or more centralised plants, conventionally producing hot or chilled water distributed through a network of insulated pipes to nearby buildings, including office buildings, schools, hospitals and airports. By combining loads for multiple buildings, they create economies of scale that can help reduce energy costs. Since the first generation of DHC in the 1880s, operating temperatures have been decreasing and, more recently, energy sources are shifting to more sustainable ones. The EU-funded REWARDHeat project is accelerating this evolution, developing and demonstrating advanced DHC solutions that drastically reduce source temperatures and exploit thermal energy storage capacity integrated through smart controls.

The rest of the article at the Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) is available here

Adaptive thermal load prediction in residential buildings using artificial neural networks

This study explores the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for predicting thermal load and indoor temperature evolution in residential buildings. The proposed model, retrained daily, provides updated hour-by-hour predictions for the next 24 hours. Various design choices, including feature selection and dynamic architecture, ensure a balance between accuracy and computational efficiency.

The study underscores the potential of ANNs for precise thermal load and indoor temperature predictions, offering practical benefits for energy optimization in buildings.

The full article is available here

Circularity characterizes low-temperature district energy business models

This study examines whether heating, cooling, and hot water business models, particularly low-temperature district energy, align with circular economy principles. Findings suggest inherent circularity in these models, albeit with additional resource and investment requirements compared to conventional methods, informing European policy for a circular energy transition.

The full article is available here

Numerical and experimental investigation of stratified water storage tanks: An enhanced adaptive-grid model

Stratified water storage tanks play a pivotal role in thermal energy systems by ensuring an effective balance between energy supply and heat demand, thus improving operational flexibility. Eurac Research, within REWARDHeat project, aims to enhance the computational efficiency of modeling these tanks for real-time control applications by introducing an adaptive-grid model. This model accurately represents heat diffusion and characterizes the mixing effects within the inflow region, which is crucial for maintaining stratification. By addressing these aspects, the model facilitates better balancing of energy supply and heat demand, thereby enhancing operational flexibility in thermal energy systems.

Compared to previous static-grid models, the adaptive-grid approach demonstrates a remarkable 55% reduction in simulation duration while maintaining the same level of accuracy. This reduction in computational effort is crucial for situations where rapid decision-making is necessary to optimize energy utilization.

The full article is available here