The well-known TIMES (The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System) energy system model generator is used for the study in the RewardHeat project (ETSAP, M. Gargiulo, 2009).

A heating sector model (TIMES Heat) was built for the study and applied to each demonstrator.

The heating sectors in the investigated countries are represented by the TIMES Heat model, which includes heat generation in district heating systems and individual heating units in houses.The power system, as well as international fuel markets, are subjected to external treatment. Exogenous inputs to the model include energy efficiency measures and heat demand estimates.

The TIMES Heat model optimizes the cost of meeting each country's heating demand while taking into account the model's constraints, such as emissions and resource availability.

Nine scenarios were created and modeled in the TIMES model generator for the REWARDHeat project.

These nine scenarios are the outcome of a mix of three heat supply scenarios and three climate policy options.

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